The Outcome of the Journey to Taef
Abu Talib the Holy Prophet's (S.A.W.) uncle and Khadija his kind companion both died within a few days. Thus the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) lost his strongest supporter in society and the comfort and companion at home in a short time. Just as much as the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was sad about Abu Talib's death, the Quraish also became more cruel towards him. Only days after his death, they emptied a bucketful of ashes on his head. He returned home dusty. His youngest daughter, Fatimah (A.S.) ran to him and washed his hair. He saw that his little daughter was crying. He said: "My dear daughter don't be sad. Your father is not alone. Allah is his protector." Then, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) left Mecca and went to Taef which was a pleasant city in south of Mecca for the purpose of guidance and inviting people to Islam. Taef happened to be a vacation spot for the rich of Mecca, as well. Not much could be expected from the people of Taef. These people who lived amongst the luxury and blessing that surrounded them had the same mind set as that of the Meccans who had a comfortable life from the earning due to the idols. But the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) wasn't one who would be easily despaired, or be disheartened by the difficulties. He was ready to face the hardest challenges just to enlighten and attract a sincere heart. He entered Taef. He heard of the people of Taef what he had heard from the people of Mecca. One said: "Wasn't there anyone else that Allah would make you a Prophet?" The other said: "I would attest to having stolen the cover of Ka'ba rather than attesting to your Prophethood." The third one said: "I won't say even a word to you." Not only did they not accept his guidance, moreover, they encouraged a group of children and the wicked of the society to push the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) out of the city. They also joined this group. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) got away from Taef. While he was severely injured and hurt, took shelter in a garden that belonged to, Ataba and Shayba, two wealthy people among the Quraish. They also happened to be in the garden, they watched this state of the Prophet, and were happy about it. The kids and the wicked of Taef returned. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) sat under the shade of the vineyard away from Ataba and Shayboa. He was alone with his Lord. He directed his need toward a self sufficient Lord and said: "My Lord! I complain to You from my weakness the blocking of my means and from the making fun of the people. O Kindest of the kind, You are the Lord of the oppressed and the belittled. You are my Lord. Who frown at me, or the enemy whom You have given a temporary superiority over me? My Lord if what has come upon me is other than your anger over me for a deserved punishment, I am not disheartened, But the field of well being is wider for me. I seek refuge in the light of Your essence which lights all darkness and rectifies affairs of this and the next world, from Your anger and Your torment. I am pleased with that which has come upon me, so that You may be pleased with me. There is no change and no power in the world but by You and from You." Ataba and Shayba who were happy at the defeat of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) still in observance of dues to relatives sent him a tray of grape by 'Udas their Christian slave. 'Udas brought him the grapes and told him: "Eat". The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) took a grape and said "Bismilla" before he put it in his mouth. 'Udas had never heard of this word before. He heard it the first time from the tongue of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). 'Udas said: "This is not a common word among the people of this region . What was this word?" The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.): " 'Udas, where are you from? What is your religion?" "I am from Naynawa and I am a Christian" "From Naynawa, from the city of Allah's righteous servant Yunus ibn Mata?" "Amazing! How do you know of Yunus bin Mata in this land? There aren't even few people in Naynawa who would know Mata the father of Yunus." "Yunus is my brother. He was a messenger, I too am a messenger of Allah." Ataba and Shayba saw that 'Udas is standing and still talking to the Prophet. They were disheartened, for they were always afraid of people talking to him. Soon they saw that 'Udas has fallen on the ground and kissing the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). One told the other: "See that he misguided the poor slave!"  Seera-e Ibn-e Hishams v. 1 , p 419 - 421
Malik bin Anas, who was a famous scholar in Madinah, went to Hajj with Imam Sadiq (A.S.) . They arrived in Miqat, and got ready to put on the Ihram, and saying the Dhikr of Talbiyya (We say yes to your call our Lord). Others said this prayer in their own common ways. Malik bin Ans noted that Imam (A.S) was in a different state. Every time that he (A.S.) was about to say these words, his voice would crash in his throat, and lose control of his limbs such that he would be on the verge of falling off his ride. Malik approached the Imam (A.S.) and said: "O son of the Prophet of Allah! You must say this Dikhr, no matter what your condition." The Imam (as) said: "O son of Abi 'Amir! How could I have the courage to say Labbaik? Saying Labbaik means that: My Lord, I am hurrying to what you are calling me towards, and I am always ready. With what confidence should I enact this boldness against my Lord, and call myself an ever ready servant? And what shall I do if the response from Him is La Labbaik (and we don't accept of you)?   Malik ibn Anas son of Abi 'Amir is one of the leaders of the four Sunni schools of thought. The school of thought of Maliki stems from him. He lived around the time of Abu Haneefa. Shafi'i was a student of Malik and Ahmad bin Hanbal was Shafi'i's student. Malik's Fiqh was considered an opponent of Abu Haneefa's FiQh. Abu Haneefa's FiQh relies more on Ra'i (judgement), and Qiyas (comparison). While Malik's FiQh relies more on Hadith and the tradition. In Wafyyat ul A'ayaan (v 3, p 286) it is related by Ibn Khalkan that Malik used to cry a lot near his death. He was very worried about some of his Fatwas which were based on Ra'i, and would say: "I wish I had not decreed based on my own judgement. I would have preferred to have been lashed for each of those decrees, and I would be free from the sins." One of the honors of Malik is his belief that allegiance to Muhammad bin 'Abdullah Mahdh who was martyred was correct, and allegiance to Bani 'Abbas, which was based on power was not right. Malik was very outspoken about this belief, and never feared the cruelty of 'Abbasids. This caused him to be lashed by the order of Ja'far bin Sulaiman 'Abbasi. This lashing gained him more popularity. (please see Wafyyat al A'yaan, V. 3, p 285) Malik used to visit Imam Ja'fa Sadiq (A.S.) quite frequently, and happens to be one of those who has narrated from him (as). Bihar's volume 11, page 109 reports from a number of books such as Khisal, 'Ilal ush Sharay', Suddooq, that Imam (A.S.) was kind to Malik. He (as) would tell him that: "I like you." Malik used to be very happy whenever the Imam (A.S.) was affectionate towards him. Malik is reported to have said: "I used to visit Imam Sadiq (A.S.) for a time. I would find him praying, fasting, or reciting Qur'an. No ear has heard, no eye has witnessed, and no mind has imagined better than Ja'fa ibn-e Muhammad(A.S.) in knowledge, piety, and worship." (The book of Al Imam al Sadiq) It is also Malik who is reported to have said: "He was one of the best of his time, who feared Allah , and knew a great deal of Hadith. He was pleasant and had an excellent character. Being in his presence was a blessing. Whenever he heard the name of the Prophet of Allah , he would be awe stricken, and his state would change."  Bihar al Anwar, V. 11, p. 109
The Last Word
As soon as Umme Hameeda the mother of Imam Kadhim (A.S.) saw Abu Baseer, who had come to pay his condolences for the death of her husband Imam Ja'fa Sadiq (A.S.), she cried. Abu Baseer cried as well. When she was comforted, Umme Hameeda told him: "You were not present at the last moments of Imam (A.S.) to see what happened." Abu Baseer asked:" What happened?" She said: "It was the last moments of Imam's (A.S.) life. He eyes were closed. All of a sudden he opened his eyes, and said: 'gather all the family members now.' It was strange that the Imam (A.S.) had ordered as such in this last moment. So we put our efforts together, and gathered all relatives. All were ready to hear what the Imam (A.S.) had to say. When the Imam (A.S.) saw that every one was present, he told them: "Our intercession shall be the portion of those who belittle their prayers."   Bihar al Anwar, V. 11, p. 105
The Black Market
Imam Sadiq's (A.S.) family and dependents had grown in number. Imam thought of starting some bussines, so that the expenses of the family could be provided for. He gave one thousand Dinars to his servant named Musadif, and told him: "Take this money and go to Egypt for trade." Musadif purchased products that were marketable in Egypt, and left with a caravan. As they arrived in Egypt, another caravan was leaving Egypt. It came to their attention that the goods, that Musadif had brought, had a competitive market in Egypt, and has become rare. Whoever had those goods, were very happy for thier good luck. As the good happened to be a basic neccisity of life, people had to purchase it for any price. The merchants agreed that they will sell it only double the price. Thus they went to the market place, and sold the item double the purchase price as they had agreed. Musadif returned with two thousand Dinars. Happily he went to the Imam (A.S.) and put the two bags of money infront of him. Imam (A.S.) asked: "What are these?" He said: "One of the bags is the initial capital. The next is the interest." Imam (A.S.): The interest is a large sum. Tell me how you earned all this?" "We were informed that the goods we had along was rare in Egypt. So we decided and swore to sell it double its value." "Subhan Allah! You did such a thing! You swore to form a black market among the Muslims. You swore not to sell it but double the value! I do not want such trade. I don't want such profit. Then Imam picked one of the bags and said: "This is my capital." He didn't touch the other, and said: "I have nothing to do with this." Then he said: "Fighting with sword is easier than earning Hallal sustenance."   Bihar al Anwar, V. 11, p 121
'Aqeel, 'Ali's Guest
'Aqeel came to Imam 'Ali's (A.S.) house in Kufa when he was the caliph of the time. Imam'Ali (A.S.) asked his elder son, Hasan ibn 'Ali(A.S.) to give a gift to his uncle. Imam Hasan (A.S.) gave one of his outfits to his uncle. The next night, Imam Ali (A.S.), and 'Aqeel were sitting at the roof of the Daar ul 'Imara (governor's office). It was dinner time. 'Aqeel was expecting a fancy dinner since he was in the caliph's company. Opposite to his expectation, the dinner was very simple. Surprised, he asked: "Is this all the dinner?" Imam Ali (A.S.) said: "Isn't this enough of a blessing from Allah ? I praise Allah for all these blessings." 'Aqeel said: "Perhaps I shall present my request and be excused to leave. I am heavily indebted. Give an order so that my debt be paid off. You can also help me as much as you can afford." "How much do you owe?" "Hundred thousand Darham." "Oh, that is quite a bit! I am sorry my brother, that I don't have it all, so that I could pay them now. But wait till I get paid, then I shall give you some. Had I not the responsibility of my own family, I would pay you all of my next months pay." "What?! Should I wait till the next month's pay? But the public treasury is in your hand, and you are telling me to wait until next month so that you could pay me from your own pay check?! You can pay me whatever amount you would want out of the public treasury. Why do you want me to wait? Moreover, how much is your pay? I don't think it could pay off all my loan." "I am not surprised by your suggestion. Whether there is money in the public treasury or not is not mine or your concern. I and you are one like the thousand other Muslims. Granted that you are my brother, and I should help you from my own income. But not from public treasure." The discussion continued, and 'Aqeel was insisting that he should be paid off from the public treasure, so that he could leave content. The bazaar of Kufa was apparent from the place they were sitting. One could see safes of the merchants from there. Upon 'Aqeel's insistence,Imam Ali (A.S.) told him: "If you continue to insist, I will offer you a suggestion. If you act on it, you can have more than you want." "What should I do?" "You see those safes. As soon as there is nobody in the market, just sneak down there, and break the safes, and take as much money as you like." "Who those safes belong to?" "To the merchant. They put all their cash in them." "What? Do you tell me to break the safes and take the money of those poor people who have worked so hard, put their money in there with reliance upon Allah ?" Then how do you suggest to me that I should open the door of public treasure to you? Who does this money belong to? This also belongs to a people who are resting in their homes not worrying about their trust. Now, I have a different suggestion. If you will act upon it." "What do you suggest?" "If you will, let us both take our swords and go the ancient city of Heera, where some very wealthy business people live. We will attack one of them, and gain a huge sum of money." "My dear brother! I have not come to steal. All I am asking for is some money from the public treasure. Just give me some, so that I could pay my debts." "It is better if we steal the money of one person rather than the money of hundreds of thousands of Muslims. How is it that stealing from one individual is considered stealing, while stealing from the public treasure is not theft? Do you think that stealing has to be done with violence, and force? The most criminal theft is the one that you are offering to me."   Bihar al Anwar, v 9 Print of Tabriz p. 613
Imam Sadiq (A.S.) and a Group of Sufis
Sufyan Suri who lived in Medina came at the presence of Imam Sadiq (A.S.). He noticed that the Imam (A.S.) had a delicate and thin outfit on. He told him (A.S.): "It is not befitting that you would groom yourself in such a manner with the luxuries of the world. You are expected to be pious, and keep aloof from the worldly gifts." Imam (A.S.): "I will tell you something which is beneficial in your present and next world. If you are misguided and understand that this is the essence of Islam, then perhaps what I will say will be of some good to you. However, if you wish to introduce an innovation in Islam, it is a whole different matter, and my words shall not benefit you. Perhaps you are thinking about the simple life style of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and his companions and you deem that to be the ideal till the day of judgment, and goal of all Muslims is that they live in poverty. But know that the Prophet (pbuh) lived at a time when people had economical hardship. Most people didn't even have basics of their livelihoods. The specific living conditions of the Holy Prophet's (S.A.W.) and his companion's life was due to the general public's living standards. But when the conditions become more favorable and the obtaining material goods become feasible, then the believers are most fit to benefit from them rather than the nonbelievers. What do you see worthy of objection in me? Allah is my witness that while you find me rightfully enjoying Allah's blessing, from the day I have reached legal maturity, I have been watchful of others portion not polluting mine." Sufyan couldn't respond to Imam's logical arguments. Thus he left Imam (A.S.) defeated and ashamed. However, he discussed the case with his friends. They decided to come collectively and argue with the Imam (A.S.). So they came to him as a group and said: "Our friend couldn't clarify his stance. We have come to have a clearer discussion with you and tell you our arguments." Imam (A.S.): " What are your arguments?" The sufis: "Our arguments are from the Qur'an." Imam (A.S.): "What argument can be better that a Qur'anic one ? Tell me, I am ready to listen." The Sufis: "We shall present two Ayas (verses) from Qur'an in support of our practice and lifestyle. And that is enough of an argument for us. Allah praises some companions in such term: "while they are financially restricted, they prefer others to themselves. Those who are free from tight handiness, they are the felicitous one." And also Qur'an says: "While they still love and need food, they give it to the poor, orphans and the captives." When they were done, a man who was sitting at the periphery of the group, was intently listening to them said: "As I understand, I don't think you really believe in what you say. You say these things so that you could disinterest people in their property, so that they would give it to you. No one has seen you refuse delicious food." Imam (A.S.): "Let us leave these arguments. No one benefits from these." Then he looked at the Sufis and told them: "Now that base your arguments on Qur'an, do you understand the Muhkam, Mutashabih, Naasikh and Mansukh of the Qur'an? Whoever is lost among this Ummah, is due to their reliance on, without knowledge of Qur'an." The Sufis: "Sure, we know a bit about it but not completely." Imam: "This is the root of your problem. The same principle applies to the traditions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). One needs to be well informed about them." "However the verses that you just quoted do not apply to refusal of Allah's blessings. These verses refer to a sense of charity and giving. It praises a group of people who prioritize the need of others over their own, and gave their Hallal portion to other. Had they not given, it still would be acceptable to Allah, and they would not have committed a sin. Allah had not ordered them to behave in such a manner, neither had Allah prohibited them from doing so either. They put themselves in hardship in response to their kindness and gave to others. Thus Allah will repay them. Your behavior, however, doesn't reflect the message of those Ayas. You prohibit and blame people for using and enjoying the blessing granted to them by Allah . Those companions gave to that extent on that particular moment in history. However, Allah sent a clear guidance and specified the terms and limits of charity. Thus when these further Ayas were revealed, they served as outdating their behavior. Thus we must follow Allah's command, not the behavior of a group. Allah (swt) with his grace and for the well being of the believers prohibited people from excess in charity, that will put a person and his family in hardship. He is not allowed to give everything to others since he might have children and elderly in the family who may not tolerate hardship. If I give away the only piece of bread at my home, my family who is my responsibility will be destroyed. Thus the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "whoever has a few dates for charity, he must on the first hand give to his parents, then to his wife and children, then to his relative and to his believing brothers and as the last resort as charity." Charity is the fourth in order. When the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) heard that a man among Ansar had died and has left orphans behind, while he had given all his belonging for charity, said: "Had you informed me of his action, I would not have allowed him to be buried in the Muslim graveyard. He has left orphans who will need public assistance." "My Father, Imam Baqir (A.S.) said that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.): "Start charity at home in order of relation. Whoever is closer, is more deserving. "Moreover, Qur'an prohibits your attitude and behavior, when it says: "The pious are those who are neither extravagant nor stingy in giving charity. They chose a middle path." In many Ayahs of Qur'an, it strongly prohibits excess in giving such as it discourages tight handiness. Qur'an shows a middle path for this. One should not give everything away such that he remains financially broke and then raise hands in prayer asking for sustenance. Allah never responds to such prayer, because the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said that Allah doesn't accept the prayer of few groups of people: The person who asks for a disaster or his parents. The person who has given a loan and has not taken a witness, when his property has been devoured by the other side, he raises his hands for prayer and seeks Allah's help. This person has destroyed his property by his own hands and has given it without a witness. A man who asks Allah to rid him of his wife. This man, if has a real problem that can't be solved with his wife, can get a divorce. The man who wits at home and asks for sustenance. Allah perhaps tells him: "My servant. Have I not shown you means of earning? Have I given you will proportioned organ? I have granted you hands, legs, eyes, ears, and a brain so that you can move, see hear and think. There is a purpose for the creation of all these organs. To thank Allah for them us to use them. Thus my favor is over unto you. Now you must move, and obey my order for working hard and not become an excess on someone else. Of course, had I seen if fit, I could have provided you with immense sustenance. Nonetheless even if you can't earn enough with your own hard work, which may be due to a good reason, you have done your duty and tried. The one who was given generous sustenance and he gave excessively and is in financial hardship. When he raises hands in prayer, Allah responds: "Had I not provided you generously ? Why didn't you choose the middle ground?" "Had I not ordered you to be moderate in giving charity?" "Had I not prohibited you from giving too much?" That who prays for cutting off womb relations, or asks for something that results in break in family ties. Allah has taught the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) the etiquette's of giving charity. Once there was a certain amount of gold with the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) which he wanted to spend for the poor. He didn't want to keep the gold in his place even for one night. So he gave it all the next morning. A wayfarer asked the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) for assistance, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W. didn't have anything, so he became sad, that is when the Ayah was revealed: "Neither your hands to your neck, nor leave them outstretched to become broke and be blamed by the poor." These are the traditions from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), Qur'anic verses also support them. Obviously those who believe in Qur'an believe in the verses of Qur'an. When they asked Abu Bakr to leave a will regarding his property, he said spend one-fifth of my property to the poor. The rest belongs to my relatives. One-fifth of his property was significant amount. A dying person is allowed to give one-third of his property towards charity. Had he known he would have given all one-third. You know about Salman and Abu Dhar's piety and asceticism. They didn't do excess in charity when he was getting his annual payment from the public treasury, he was putting away his year's expenditure. Someone asked him: "How is it that you save for a year? Perhaps you will die today or tomorrow, and not live till the end of the year." He said: "Perhaps I live, why do you assume the possibility of dying, there is the possibility of living also. If I live then I have expenses. O' ignorant ones, you must know that if a person is in material hardship, it sows down in obeying and supporting truth. It looses it's energy and enthusiasm in support of truth. However once it is provided with some, it calms down." And Abu Dharr had few camels and sheep. He used their milk. If he needed the meat or when he had guests, or when someone was in need, he would consume their meat. Whenever he wanted to give, he would keep an equal portion for himself. Who was more pious than these people? You know how the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has praised them. They never gave all their property in the name of charity, they never followed the path that you suggest and live your lives. I shall tell you this Hadith which comes to me from my father and ancestors from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.): "One of the strongest phenomena is the state of the believer who deems everything the some whether he is cut into pieces or is given the kingdom of east and west." No. A Believer excellence isn't dependent on his poverty. Excellence in a believer comes from his faith. For whether he is in poverty or wealth, he is aware of his duty which he accomplishes with perfection. So a believer has a strange state with which all that happens to him from ease to distress become sources of good. I wonder if I have told you enough? Do you know that at the beginning of Islamic movement when the number of Muslims was small the law of Jihad commanded that one man should fight ten infidels. If he didn't, it would be considered a sin and a transgression. But later when the situation changed and there were more Muslims, Allah granted a major relief with His mercy. The law was changed such that each Muslim was to fight only two infidels, not any more. I will ask you of a judiciary matter: Assume that you are in the court and the judge asks you to pay your wife's sustenance alimony. What will you do? Will you present an excuse that you are an ascetic and have turned you face away from the riches of the world? Will this excuse be accepted? Do you think that the judge's order that you pay the alimony is a just one? Or is it unjust? If you assert that it is unjust you have lied, and have insulted the whole Muslim Ummah and if you say it is just, then your excuse is invalid. Thus you know that your behavior is wrong. The other issue is: There are times when a person give obligatory and non obligatory charity. For instance, one pay Zakat or Kaffarah. Suppose every one agrees with you and run away from material gains in the world how sould they pay for these obligatory charitable acts. What happens to the Zakat which must be paid off on gold, sliver, sheep, camel, cow, dates and raisin? Aren't these obligatory, so that the poor people may have a chance to live better and enjoy goods in life? It is obvious that the goal of religion in these matters is providing for goods in life. Had the goal of reilgion been poverty, then the poor have reached the peak of excellence. Why would others be obligated to give them goods and take them out of their blessed state? Also if the poor are happy, they should refuse to come out of happiness. If what you assert to be true were valid then no one had to keep any money and them there world not be any need for Zakat. It is clear, therefor, that you have chosen a very dangerous and ugly path and guide people into destruction. The path you are on and intend to bring other in is due to your ignorance of Qur'an, the Sunnah and tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). These are not traditions that could be doubted. Qur'an support their authenticity. But you refuse the traditions that do not agree with your way of life. This is ignorance. Leave ignorance as it has many followers. But knowledge has fewer supporters. Allah said: "A wise man is superior to a knowledgeable person." In the begining of the 2nd century, there was a group of people who called themselves Sufi and ascetic. This group had a particular lifestyle which they asked others to follow as well. They would pretend as if this was the real religion. They would argue that one should leave the goods of the world. A believer must not dress well, must not eat delicious food, must not live in a good house, they would advertise. They used to criticize these would take advantage of the goods of life, and would defame them as worldly people and away from Allah . Sufyan had this same criticism against Imam (as). This life style has existed in many parts of the world, specifically in Greece and India. This life style gradually influenced some Muslims who gave it a religious identity. This lifestyle was passed on to the next generations and became very popular. In fact one could say that it became as a special school of thought among Muslims. It's most direct influence was that of making people disregard in laws and principles in life that was partly responsible for decay and regression of civilization in Islamic societies. The influence of this ideology wasn't only among Sufis alone, but also among other groups and schools of thought who didn't and don't consider themselves Sufis and infact would, at times, call themselves antagonistic to the Sufi practices. Also, not all people who were called Sufis, had such practices, either. There is no doubt that such lifestyle should be considered a dangerous social ailment, which paralyzes the spiritual growth of the society. One must struggle against this disease, and eliminate this ideology. Unfortunately, most of the social movements that label themselves as against this lifestyle, aren't realy struggling against the ideology. They are merely struggles against names and titles, and for some, it is a strive for name and gain. Indeed, some of those who claim to be struggling against such ideologies have acquired the lifestyle, themselves, who propagate it. It is the ignorance of some immature people who think that they are fighting against such ideologies, which channels antagonistic energies against some excellent thoughts, which are no less than masterpeices of human intellect. Struggle aganist negative Sufism, must be against that disease, and that ideology in the manner shown to us by this Hadith of Imam Sadiq (A.S.), at any time, any place, and under any title. Nonetheless, Imam's (A.S.) presentation, is the most conclusive stance available against this ideology that has unfortunately plagued Muslim nations. Fortunately, it is safe, and intact in Hadith book.
Hisham and Farazdaq
Even though Hisham ibn 'Abdul Malik was the crown prince, and those years were the first decade of the second century when the Umayyad power was at its peak, he could not touch the Black Stone after circumambulation. All people were dressed in the same simple garb of Ihram, saying the same remembrance of Allah , and doing the same thing. They were so overwhelmed in their pure emotions that they had no mind to pay attention to the worldly glory of Hisham. The gaurds who were with him to protect Hisham, were feeling helpless in the sight of this glory. Hisham tried very hard to come close to the Black Stone and touch it. But due to the large crowd, it was not possible. Thus he returned and sat on a high chair to see the pilgrimage. The Syrians who had come with him also stared at the crowd. At this time, a man who seemed to be a pious spiritual man, having the simple white Ihram appeared. Signs of worship and piety were apparent on his face. He circumambulated around the Ka'ba. Then with a calm composure, and determined steps, he went towards the Black Stone. The crowd made way for him, as soon as they saw him approaching. The Syrians who had failed to take the crown prince to the Black Stone, were amused with this sight. One of them asked Hisham: "Who is this person?" While Hisham knew that this was 'Ali ibn Husain Zainul Abideen(A.S.), he said: "I don't know." No one could have the courage to dispute Hisham's claim, for their swords were always wet with the blood of the brave, and the bold. But, Farazdaq, the articulate Arab poet, who should have feared Hisham more than any one else, was so emotional that he said: "But I know him." Thus, he stood on an elevated ground and read a beautiful poem, which is one of the masterpieces of the 'Arab language. These were words that could only take form when the soul of the poet flows as the tide of the ocean. Thus he said: "This man is the one, who is known to all the sands of the land of Batha. This Ka'ba knows him. This Haram, and the land outside it knows him. This is the child of the best of God's servants. This is the pure, and pious infallible. If you say that you don't know him, does not hurt his status. Perhaps you don't know him. But all the Arab and non Arab know him.........." Hisham was furious at Farazdaq after hearing this poem. He ordered that his portion from the public treasure be discontinued, and that he should be imprisoned in 'Asfan, located between Mecca, and Madina. But Farazdaq wasn't bothered by this nuance which he gained as an outcome of his boldness and honesty. He continued to create poetry against Hisham in the prison.Imam Ali ibn Hussain (A.S.) sent some money to Farazdaq, since he was in the prison and had no means of earning. Farazdaq didn't accept it, and said that he had said the poem only for God." Imam Ali ibn Husain (A.S.) resent him the money saying: "Allah is well aware of your intention, and will reward you appropriately. If you accept this money, it shall not suffer your reward from Allah ." And he urged Farazdaq to accept the gift. Finally Farazdaq accepted it.  Bihar, V. 11, p. 36
Adi Ibn Hatam
Before the advent of Islam and the formation of an Islamic government, the feudal system prevailed among the Arabs. Arab people were used to obeying their chiefs and once in a while paid tribute to them. A feudal Arab chieftain was Hatam Ta'i from the tribe of Tai who was noted for his munificence. After Hatam, his son, Adi, succeeded his father and his tribe obeyed him too. Every year Adi received one-fourth of the income of each of his tribesmen as tribute. Adi's leadership was in the days of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and the spread of Islam. The Tai tribe were idolaters, but Adi himself was Nazarene and hid it from his people. Arab people who accepted Islam were introduced to its freedom through teachings, were freed willy-nilly from the thraldom of their chiefs. Adi, like other Arab dignitaries felt that Islam was an imminent danger to himself and antagonised the Holy Prophet, but it was too late and Islam and Muslims piecemeal came to the fore. Adi knew well that one day they would overthrow him. He said to his confidant, a slave, to keep a dromedary close at hand and to tell him right away of the Muslim army's drawing near. One day the slave came and told him that the Muslim army was somewhere in the nearby. Adi lost no time and fled with his family members to Syria where people were also Nazarenes. But he was so confused and in a great hurries that he forgot his sister, Safaneh and she was left alone there. When the Muslim army arrived, Adi had already fled. They carried Safaneh as a prisoner to Medina and told the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) about Adi. Outside the mosque of Medina was an enclosure wherein the prisoners were lodged. One day the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) went past the place to enter the mosque. Safaneh, an intelligent young woman accosted the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and said: "I have lost my father and my brother has also hidden himself. Please do me a favour and Allah will reward you." The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) asked who her brother was. She replied: "Adi Ibn Hatam." The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) added: "He was the man who has turned away from Allah and His messenger... and ran away". The next day again Safaneh accosted the Prophet and the Prophet went away without taking note of what she said. The third day, Safaneh was nearly disappointed and wanted to remain silent, but a young man who was close behind the Prophet signalled her to repeat her plea, and she did. The Prophet said: "Well I am looking for a trustworthy man to take charge of you and send you back to your tribe." Safaneh asked people that who was the man close behind the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and found out that he was Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A.S). Sometime later, Safaneh told the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) that there had come some trustworthy people from her tribe to Medina, and asked the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) to let them take her back to her brother. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) gave her some money and some new clothing and a camel and she accompanied her tribesmen to Syria where her brother was. No sooner had Safaneh seen her brother, she began to reproach him saying: "You took your wife and children with you but forgot me your own flesh and blood." Adi apologised to her and asked about her opinion as to whether it was advisable for him to join the Prophet or turn away from him. Safaneh advised her brother to join the Prophet, saying: "If he is really Allah's messenger, it will be a great honour for you. And if he is not a Prophet and ambitious, you will not loose your dignity there not far from Yemen because you have popularity among the Yemeni people." Adi took her sister's advice and went to Medina to see around who really the Prophet was. If he were truly Allah's messenger, he would follow him, but if he had worldly ambitions, he would co-operate with him as far as their common interests might allow. Adi called upon the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in the Mosque and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) asked who he was. Adi said he was son of Hatam Ta'i. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) respected him and took him to his house. On their way, a bent and aged old woman accosted the Prophet and he answered her questions kindly and patiently for a long time. Adi said to himself that this was a sign of morality that showed he was a Prophet. Never has a tyrant such a temperament to endure a poor old woman. When Adi entered the Holy Prophet's house, he saw that he had a humble living. There was only a mattress on which the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) sat. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) spread the mattress for Adi. He said this was the second sign of Prophet - like temperament. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) asked Adi if he was a Nazarene. He replied, yes. Then why did you receive one-fourth of the income of each man? This was not allowed in your religion. Adi was startled because even his next of kin knew nothing of his religion. Adi said to himself, this was the third sign of his being a Prophet. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) added: "You see Muslims in their abject poverty. You see them at the mercy of their enemies. You see others in power. By Allah the Almighty, before long Muslims will have so much wealth and you will hardly find a destitute fellow among them. Their enemies will be vanquished and there will be safety and security in their land that allows a woman traveller to make a journey alone from Iraq to Hijaz without being hurt at all. By Allah it will not take long that the white castles of Babylon will be conquered by the Muslim army." Adi Ibn Hatam accepted Islam wholeheartedly and remained devoted to Islam as long as he lived. He survived the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and remembered his prophecies. He said: "I am glad to live long enough to see the white castles of Babylon were conquered by Muslim army, and also to see a woman travel alone from Iraq to Hijaz without being hurt at all. By Allah I am sure there will soon be the time when there will be no trace of poverty among the Muslims.
The Wisdom Of Luqman
Luqman is not generally believed to be a Prophet, but he was a man who had been specially endowed with wisdom by Allah . He was the nephew of Prophet Ayyub (A.S.) and lived at the time of Prophet Dawood (A.S.). He was an extremely pious man and used to mostly remain silent while he pondered about the nature of life. Sometimes he would come to Prophet Dawood (A.S.) to discuss problems. One of Luqman's wives and some of his sons were disbelievers and so he preached to them about faith in Allah till they embraced Islam. His words of wisdom were worthy of being quoted in the Holy Qur'an, which says: [And indeed We gave to Luqman wisdom, saying, "Be grateful to Allah; for whoever is grateful, verily he is only grateful for his own self; and whoever is ungrateful, (it is to the discredit of his own self) then verily Allah is Self-Sufficient, the Most Praised." And when Luqman said to his son while he counselled him, "O my son! Do not associate anything (in authority) with Allah, for verily associating (anything) with Allah is the greatest sin." And We enjoined man concerning his parents; his mother bears him in weakness upon weakness and his weaning takes two years. Be grateful to Me and unto your parents, (and remember that) unto me is the ultimate return. "O my son! verily if it is even the very weight of the grain of a mustard seed (closed) in (even) a rock, or (be it high) in the heavens or (buried deep) in the earth, Allah will bring it to light; Allah is All-Subtle (Lateef), All-Aware. O my son! Establish prayer and enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and be patient against what befalls you; verily this is the task of steadfastness. And do not turn your face to people (in scorn) and do not walk proudly in the earth; verily Allah does not like any self-conceited boaster. And be moderate (modest) and lower your voice; verily the most unpleasant of voices is the braying of the donkeys." Quran 31:12 - 14, 16 - 19] Luqman lived for 1,000 years from the time of Prophet Dawood (A.S.) to that of Prophet Yunus (A.S.). His life was and words are a great lesson in Akhlaq (morals) for mankind.
Advice to Abdulla Mubarak
Abdulla Mubarak once approached Buhlool with a request to show him a way of salvation and purification from sins. Buhlool replied that what could be expected from him when people considered him as an insane person. Why not find a sensible person to guide you? He added. Abdulla said that insane persons are quite often experts in their profession hence one ought to listen to words of wisdom from those considered mentally imbalanced. On Abdullah's insistence, Buhlool agreed upon four conditions narrated as under: What better reason other than this could it be for one always to remain on the path of obedience to Allah. Firstly: "If you go against any command of Allah then you should refrain from eating from His sustenance. How dare you as a sensible person, claiming to be servant of Allah and enjoying His bounties yet turn against Him?" Abdulla admitted that this was the absolute truth. Secondly: "When you disobey Him, you should not reside in His domain". Abdulla said: "This was rather difficult condition to comply with". Buhlool said: "But how unfair it was to enjoy His blessings and reside in His domain yet disobey and go against His commands. Allah. Himself had said in the Holy Qur'an: "Surely to Us is their turning back Then surely upon Us is the taking of their account". (88:25-26) Thirdly: "if you are bent upon committing a sin, then do so at a place where Allah cannot see you at all". Abdulla said: "This is impossible". Buhlool said: "How unfair it was for one to enjoy His bounties, reside in His domain and yet commit sins despite the fact that He is seeing you. And Allah has stated in the Holy Qur'an: "And do not think Allah to be heedless of what the unjust do: He only respites them to a day on which the eyes shall be fixedly open". (14:42) Fourthly: "When the angel of death approaches you for taking away your soul, tell him to wait so that you may bid farewell to people and perform some good deeds for the benefit of life after death". Abdulla responded saying: "This was impossible because the angel of death does not allow any respite to anyone". Buhlool reacted to this by saying. "How dare you then commit a sin when you know for certain that you are not going to be spared anytime when death approaches. Is it not possible that death comes to you at the very moment when you are committing sin and you are unable to move. And Allah had said in the Holy Qur'an.. "Lo every people is a term appointed. when their term is reached, not an hour can they cause a delay, nor (an hour) can they advance". (7:34) Abdulla told Buhlool that he had carefully listed and understood his four conditions and wanted to hear more from him. Buhlool then added: "Man when committing action, or uttering, or hearing any word, ought to keep in view the commands of Allah".
At Umm Salamah's home
That night, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was at Umm Salamah's home. When she woke up in the midst of the night, she didn't find him in his bed. A bit worried, she wondered where he would be? She started searching for him. She found him standing in a dark corner, hands raised to the heavens, crying and saying: "My Lord! Do not take away the good things you have granted me. My Lord! Do not make me subject of hatred of my enemies and the jeolous ones. My Lord! Don not turn me to the wrongs that you have diverted me from. My Lord! Don't ever leave me on my own, even for a fraction of a moment." As she heard these sentences, Umm Salamah shivered with fear, and retired to a corner and started weeping. Her crying was so severe that the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) came to her asking: "Why are you crying?" "Why shouldn't I cry? You have such a lofty place in Allah's sight, yet you fear Him to this degree. You ask of Him not to leave you on your own even for a short while. Woe to me!" "O' Umm Salamah! How can I not fear, and remain content. Yonus (A.S.) was left on his own, and you know what happened to him." (1) (1): Bihar, v 6 The section Makarim-e Akhlaqhihi wa Seerah wa Sunnah.
Halimah - The Wet Nurse
In the history of Islam, many women have made themselves known in the history books due to their courage, valor and inspiring faith. Some of them have earned renown because of their brave deeds and exemplary Islamic behavior. However some have had honour bestowed upon them solely through the grace of Almighty Allah, who saw fit to single them out with a divine reward. One such personality was Halimah, a great lady from the respectable Arab tribe of Bani Sadi. Halimah was divinely chosen from among many pure and honorable women to be the wet nurse of "The Seal of the Prophets",Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.). The noble mother of Hazrat Muhammad(S.A.W.) died shortly after the birth of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.), which left him a young infant, without the benefits of being suckled and nursed by a mother. Hazrat Muhammad's(S.A.W.) father at that time was on a journey and so he was left in the custody of his grandfather Abdul Mutallib. His grandfather was searching Mecca to find a mother to nurse the young hungry infant. Divine destiny intervened at that time since Halimah and a group of other women were travelling to Mecca. A very severe famine and drought in the region of the Bani Sa'di had forced the women, all mothers with nursing infants, to travel to Mecca seeking jobs as wet nurses. Halimah herself related the amazing story of how she came to be chosen as the wet nurse to feed the infant who was to become the most noble Messenger of Allah, seal of the Prophets. We were travelling towards Mecca on donkeys and camels hoping to find jobs nursing suckling infants. The drought and famine had left us all hungry and poverty stricken. Our farms had become barren and our animals sick and worthless. I was riding on a very slow tired donkey, cradling an infant of my own who had to go to sleep hungry at nights since my milk was not enough to satisfy him. I hoped that maybe if I found a job as a wet nurse our poverty may slightly alleviated. When we arrived in Mecca, Abdul Mutaleb had asked the women to take Hazrat Muhammad(S.A.W.) but no one accepted because since he was an orphan they thought they wouldn't be paid well enough. However his grandfather didn't give up and continued to ask other women if they would accept the infant Hazrat Muhammad(S.A.W.). I decided to offer my help to Abdul Mutallib and I told him I was able to accept his infant. He asked me who I was and I told him, "I am Halimah from the tribe of Bani Sa'di. He smiled and said, "You are from a tribe which is renowned for being fortunate (saadar) and your name is Halimah, which means patient. These qualities are rewarded in this world and the next." He agreed to give me Muhammad(S.A.W.) and took me to the home of Aminah the mother of Muhammad(S.A.W.). As soon as I laid eyes on the baby I fell in love with his beautiful, yet strangely noble face. I took hold of him and cradled him in my arms. Without any encouragement he immediately took to my breast and began feeding. However no matter what I did he wouldn't take milk from my right breast. He always only fed from the left one and in this way I was able to feed my own infant from my right breast. I took Muhammad(S.A.W.) back with me to my own home, and amazingly my breasts became so full of milk that I was able to feed both my own child and Muhammad(S.A.W.). I felt a strange sense of elation while nursing Muhammad(S.A.W.). Despite being weak and undernourished, with hardly enough milk to fill one small child, I was suddenly producing enough milk to satiate two hungry infants. But the divine benefits bestowed on us didn't stop there. From the moment we brought the child Muhammad(S.A.W.) into our home we were bestowed with successive fortune. Our sheep and camels became fat and healthy, our farm flourished. We were miraculously spared any disease, which befell the animals of our neighbors. Nursing and caring for Muhammad(S.A.W.) was so pleasurable that I soon regarded him with just as much love and affection as my own children. When Muhammad(S.A.W.) reached five years of age, he asked me one morning where his brothers went every day. I told him that they took the sheep to graze in the nearby hills. Muhammad(S.A.W.) insisted that he accompany his brothers that morning, so I allowed him to go. After a while one of my sons returned saying "They have taken Muhammad" Quickly I went to the hills and I found Muhammad(S.A.W.) alone, but it seemed that a dazzling light engulfed him. I suddenly embraced him and asked what had happened. He calmly answered "Mother Halimah -don't worry, God is with me." Halimeh experienced so many other strangely divine incidents during Muhammad's(S.A.W.) childhood that left her no doubt about the uniqueness of the orphan divine fate had led her to choose to bring up. She herself was of course of a special purity that Almighty Allah selected her to nurse his seal of the Prophets. Her efforts and troubles in lovingly bringing up Hazrat Muhammad(S.A.W.) will no doubt be rewarded in the next world.
The women at the advent of Islam, inspired by the school of thought of Islam and the commandment of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and by the blessings of the everlasting divine teachings, were able to manifest their real personality. The study of the life of one of these pious freedom-loving women was Umm-e-Salim, who can serve as a symbol for contemporary women. Umm-e-Salim's name was Sahleh. This pious woman, the daughter of Malhan, had complete faith in Allah. Umm-e-Salim was Malek ibn Nazr's wife. When she became a Muslim, her husband was away on a trip, and after his return, when came to know about his wife's new religion, he couldn't tolerate it, and ultimately Umm-e-Salim told him, "I can continue to live with you provided that you become a Muslim". Her husband chose not to accept the religion of Islam and he felt his wife and went to Syria, where later died. Umm-e-Salim had a child named Ons from Malek. He became a true follower of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) when he grew up and served Islam and Muslims, as well as the Holy Prophet of Allah(S.A.W.) throughout their difficulties and problems. Upon hearing the news of the death of Malek, Umm-e-Salim trained and educated Ons. She didn't marry until her son reached adulthood. One of the brave men of Medina called Zaid-ibn-Sahl, who was known as Abu Talhe asked for her hand in marriage, but Umm-e-Salim refused him, telling, him, "You are a great man, but the hindrance we have is that you are a polytheist. If you become a Muslim and worship the One Allah instead of man-made idols, I would accept your proposal. I wouldn't ask for a dowry; your becoming a Muslim is my dowry. Abu Talhe liked the logical savings of Umm-e-Salim and when he witnessed her Islamic way of thinking he realized the truth of Islam and became a Muslim. They married, and Um-e-Salim was the first woman who married by this way of thinking and with this dowry. This act can be an example for Muslim women They had a happy life together in Medina. Umm-e-Salim played an important part in her husband's spiritual growth. The guardianship of Umm-e-Salim on one hand and the talent of Abu Talhe on tile other hand changed him into a faithful, believing Muslim. It has been said that he played an important, historical role in the victory of Muslims in various battles, He supported the religion of Allah wholeheartedly. Abu Talhe was such a good marksman that with each arrow, he used to kill an unbeliever. He showed great braveness in the Battle of Uhud as well as in the Battle of Hunayn, where he killed twenty enemy soldiers and collected many weapons as the spoils of war. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) he continued to support the religion of Islam and the Holy Qur'an during his old age as well, the love of Allah was so deep in his, heart that one day when he recited verse from the Holy Qur'an regarding jihad in the path of Allah, he was greatly influenced and despite his children's opposition he told them: "Allah has called for both old and young to undergo Jihad for His sake, I am not an exception". Go forth light and heavy, and strive hard in Allah's way with your property and your persons; this is better for you, if you know. (Holy Qur'an 9:41) As Abu Talhe was travelling to the battle scene, he died Umm-e-Salim reliance on Allah was very great. When she married Abu Talhe, she was blessed with a son whose name was Abu Amr. He used to help his father in his work. One morning they saw that Amr was burning with fever and was seriously ill. Soon after, when his, father had left the home in order to do some work, Amr succumbed to his illness and died. Umm-e-Salim was very sad after this event but she tried to control herself and not to oppose what Allah has desired and finally, by relying upon Allah, she passed this divine examination. She quieted her spirit, performed his ablution and buried him. She told the people, "No one should inform Abu Talhe of his son's death. I will talk to him myself". Within a short period of time Abu Talhe returned home and Umm-e-Salim welcomed him with a smiling face. She received him as usual and finally told him the news of the death of their son in a very special manner by first asking him the question: "If someone gives something as a trust to his neighbor and after sometime comes to take it back, shouldn't he return his trust without delay?" Abu Talhe agreed, and Umm-e-Salim then told him: "Allah has taken back the trust He had given us our son." Upon hearing these words, Abu Talhe tried to control his grief and started prayinyg. Later he went to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and told him the story of the death of his son and his wife's behavior in this regard. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) congratulated Umm-e-Salim for her patience and prayed for them. Later on, Allah blessed Umm-e-Salim and Abu Talhe with a son who was named Abdullah by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). Abdullah reached a high level of faith, virtue and piety and as time passed, he became one of the most faithful followers of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). Yes, Umm-e-Salim was able to serve Islam and Muslims by following Islamic teachings with her awareness, faith, piety and modesty.